On the other hand, the definitions of psychiatrists and social workers would be form a great critic to the theory of differential association mainly because they guide and counsel criminals yet many of them have never adopted the criminal behavior for instance drug abuse.
In addition, one of the present authors has noted how the automatic role of the “sick junkie” is learnt through interaction with the psychiatrists and is attractive because it involves a means of denying responsibility for, and thus avoiding, what is perceived as an impossible social predicament. As Reinarman and Fagan (1988) puts it, any situation in which an individual stands to gain from withdrawal is such as to render suspect his claim to illness. Although it is correct that such motives are learnt and do propel behavior, it should not be assumed that the actors’ notion of their causes is valid nor that they should be taken uncritically, at their face value, by the theorists.
 Reinarman and Fagan, (1988) Social organization and differential association: A research note from a longitudinal study of violent juvenile offenders. Crime and Delinquency, p. 308.