Mathematical manipulatives are objects that are designed so that they can help students to understand mathematical concepts by manipulating them. Manipulatives are important since they help teachers or offer teachers new avenues for teaching mathematical concepts to students(Kennedy, 1986).
The PSSA refers to the Pennsylvania system of school assessment. These are a range of standards-based assessment adopted by the state in 1999. The standards are used for reading, writing, listening, speaking as well as mathematics.
The standards are basically used to measure a student’s achievement of certain academic standards. Apart from this they are also used to evaluate the degree to which the existing school programs help the students in attaining proficiency of the standards. The individual test scores generated are submitted to the schools and they can be used by the school authorities or teachers to identify students that may be in need of special or additional opportunities. According to the state board of education they identified four main levels of performance.