Changes in the economy that were prompted by the industrial revolution had a massive effect on the growth of urban centers. According to Levy, the economy started shifting from the traditional cottage industry to mass production in industries which were localized in one area. The mass labor required in the factory resulted into development of urban centers.
The changes in the economy also resulted into the modern business entities which requires large technical and administrative work force concentrated in one area. The rapid urban growth was also as a result of development of efficient and reliable means of transport in the late 19th and early 20th century. The advent of steam engine in rail and sea transport resulted into increased factory production as well as ease movement of people and goods into the growing urban centers. Therefore according to Levy, four factors resulted in the rapid increase in the urban population in the19th and 20th century. The factors were the rapid population increases, industrial revolution, increased agricultural production and development of reliable and efficient means of transport (Levy, pg 10).